There are a number of positive links between CBD oil and diabetes, The results of a five-year study showed that people who used cannabis or hemp on Insulin resistance is a key factor in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Claims that cannabidiol oil—widely known as CBD oil or hemp oil—can help control blood sugar for people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes or. Diabetes is a widespread disease inflicting millions of people worldwide. Chances are you know someone, either in your family or in your circle.
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This review focuses on the role of the endocannabinoid system in primary diabetes and its effects on various diabetic complications, such as diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, particularly highlighting the mechanisms beyond the metabolic consequences of the activation of the endocannabinoid system. However, recent studies also have demonstrated the expression of these receptors in various other cell types, both centrally and in the peripheral organs, implicating these receptors in a wide range of physiologic and pathologic functions and activities.
The cannabinoid receptors are, at least in part, also responsible for the effects of several natural constituents of Cannabis sativa ie, the marijuana plant. Numerous recent studies have also focused on two natural plant-derived constituents with very negligible psychotropic effects and great therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and diabetic complications: THCV seems to be a promising therapeutic compound because it has been shown to behave as a CB 1 receptor antagonist; at the same time, it activates CB 2 receptors, thereby decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress, 16,17 which are key processes in the development of diabetes and diabetic complications.
Diabetes mellitus affects 8. This type of diabetes is usually diagnosed in individuals younger than 30 years and has a prevalence of 0. Patients have a lean body build and are prone to ketosis, owing to absent insulin production. Patients are usually older than 40 years and obese. Both types of diabetes are characterized by high blood glucose levels hyperglycemia and consequent metabolic alterations, which eventually lead to the development of multiple complications.
Most diabetic complications are associated with pathologic alterations in the vascular wall; the most common macrovascular complication of diabetes is atherosclerosis, which increases the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery disease, whereas microvascular complications underlie nephropathy, retinopathy, and peripheral neuropathy.
Hyperglycemia also activates protein kinase C and the hexosamine pathway. Several studies have indicated that the common upstream event in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications is the formation of reactive oxygen species ROS and reactive nitrogen species. Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia caused by either a lack of insulin due to autoimmune destruction of islet cells or insulin resistance. Obesity is the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes, leading to insulin resistance.
Exogenous cannabinoids and ECs increase food intake and promote weight gain in animals by activating central CB 1 receptors.
The presence and function of the ECS in islet cells have been intensively investigated. The results regarding the expression of cannabinoid receptors have been contradictory and show a strong species dependence. In mouse islet cells, both CB 1 and CB 2 receptors are expressed 31—34 ; however, the specific cell type that expresses these receptors is still under debate.
Although one group found an increase in insulin release on CB 2 receptor activation, 34,40 others have shown its attenuation. It seems that the debate has not yet settled about the exact role of cannabinoids in pancreatic islet cells, and the conflicting results might be attributable to the different species and experimental conditions used in these studies.
The most important fact is, however, that clinical trials are sending a clear message about the role of the ECS in the pathogenesis of primary diabetes. The first clinical trial RIO Diabetes aimed to clarify the efficacy and safety of the CB 1 antagonist RIO in obese or overweight patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by either metformin or sulfonylureas.
There was also a significant improvement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and non—high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, as well as in systolic blood pressure. The pivotal role of the ECS in the pathogenesis of diabetes was further supported by elevated EC levels in diabetic patients.
Patients with type 2 diabetes had higher serum levels of both AEA and 2-AG than did healthy volunteers, 39 and AEA levels were also increased in the subcutaneous tissues of these individuals.
There is also considerable interest in the use of certain natural and similar synthetic cannabinoid ligands to modulate a wide variety of immune responses, including T-lymphocyte activation and subsequent cytokine production. Even though THC shows excellent immunosuppressive ability, the psychoactive effects of the compound limit its usefulness for therapeutic purposes. This is the reason why the study 10 that showed that CBD exerts similar beneficial effects is crucially important.
CBD reduced the incidence of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice, the mouse model of type 1 diabetes. CBD was also able to ameliorate the disease when given at the time of the development of initial symptoms of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Collectively, even though the ECS seems to play an important role in the development and control of primary diabetes, the exact mechanisms and cellular targets are still not completely understood. In the near future, the role of cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of islet cell function must be further investigated, and it is important to develop a peripheral CB 1 receptor antagonist suitable for clinical trials.
Accurate glucose, blood pressure, and plasma lipid controls, as well as preventive care practices, are effective in reducing the number of complications in certain patient cohorts with diabetes; however, they have their own limitations.
For example, although intensive glucose-lowering therapy reduces glycated hemoglobin levels, it increases 5-year mortality compared with standard therapy ACCORD trial.
Recently, several studies highlighted the important role of the ECS in the regulation of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and atherosclerosis, 49 suggesting that the modulation of the ECS and the administration of plant-derived cannabinoids with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties might be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes.
Both CB 1 and CB 2 receptors are expressed in the cells of the cardiovascular system, including cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, and infiltrating immune cells. Furthermore, activation of CB 1 receptors leads to increased angiotensin-1 receptor expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, which contribute to ROS production.
Vascular smooth muscle proliferation and migration are also key events in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and, therefore, in all macrovascular complications of diabetes. Later, it was shown that the CB 1 receptor antagonist RIO was also able to inhibit atherosclerosis in mouse models.
The relevance of these described findings in metabolic syndrome was investigated by long-term RIO treatment in obese Zucker rats. RIO also increased cyclooxygenase 2 expression and prostacyclin production in the aortas of obese Zucker rats. Additional post hoc exploratory analyses revealed that the changes in mean maximum atheroma thickness were favorably affected by RIO. However, changes in atheroma volume in the most diseased mm subsegments showed no significant difference between treatments.
To clarify whether this secondary end point result can be translated into a clinical benefit eg, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death reduction , the CRESCENDO trial was launched. Additional trials are needed to clarify whether modification of the ECS can lead to a clinically relevant decrease in macrovascular complications of diabetes, as soon as an effective peripheral CB 1 receptor antagonist 30 or a CB 2 receptor agonist 4 reaches the clinical phase of development.
Independent from macrovascular complications, diabetic cardiomyopathy is a distinct primary disease process that leads to heart failure in diabetic patients. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction due to myocardial collagen and advanced glycation end product deposition.
CB 1 receptors can mediate oxidative stress and cell death in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy models and in human cardiomyocytes 66,67 ; this damage is enhanced in mice deficient in the main EC, AEA-metabolizing enzyme, FAAH. Although direct involvement of the ECS has not yet been proven in diabetic cardiomyopathy, the plant-derived cannabinoid CBD attenuates inflammation, oxidative stress, cell death, myocardial dysfunction, and fibrosis in a diabetic cardiomyopathy model.
The first direct indication that the ECS plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy came from a murine model of metabolic syndrome.
This effect was concurrent with a delay in the progression of renal failure as shown by the prevention of the development of proteinuria, improved creatinine clearance, and reduction of glomerular injury and renal hypertrophy compared with vehicle-treated rats. Similarly, RIO was also able to reduce the albumin-creatinine ratio and glomerular sclerosis in a prediabetic rat model of metabolic syndrome.
The selective CB 1 antagonist AM reduced proteinuria by preventing a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of the slit diaphragm molecules nephrin, podocin, and zonula occludens-1 in diabetic kidneys.
CB 2 agonists ameliorated albuminuria, podocyte protein down-regulation, and glomerular monocyte infiltration without affecting early markers of fibrosis and reduced chemokine receptor-2 expression in both the renal cortex and cultured podocytes, suggesting that CB 2 receptor activation may interfere with the deleterious effects of MCP-1 signaling.
The CB 2 receptor was down-regulated in kidney biopsy specimens from patients with advanced diabetic nephropathy, and renal levels of the CB 2 ligand 2-AG were reduced in diabetic mice, suggesting impaired CB 2 signaling. The in vivo results were supported by in vitro findings that provided more mechanistic insight as to how the ECS influences the pathogenesis of renal failure in diabetes and the role of tubular processes in the effects of ECs during the development of diabetic kidney damage.
In vitro , AEA significantly increases the hypertrophy of proximal tubular cells. In another study, the hyperlipidemia-induced tubular cell dysfunction observed in diabetic kidneys was modeled by palmitic acid—induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells.
Blockade of CB 1 receptors was able to ameliorate palmitic acid—induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and the subsequent apoptosis. Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness and preventable blindness among adults.
Vascular inflammation and endothelial cell death caused by oxidative and nitrative stress are characteristics of diabetic retinopathy. The role of such an increase gained importance when we received insight into the role of CB 1 receptor activation in diabetic retinopathy.
Deletion of the CB 1 receptor or treatment with a CB 1 receptor antagonist prevented retinal cell death in a murine diabetes model. These observations were supported by the fact that hyperglycemia up-regulated CB 1 receptor expression and induced apoptosis in retina pigment epithelial cells, effects that were preventable with a CB 1 receptor antagonist. The effect of CBD was also examined in experimental diabetic retinopathy.
CBD was able to reduce oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, and vascular hyperpermeability associated with diabetes. Furthermore, CBD also attenuated high glucose—induced endothelial cell dysfunction, ROS generation, and barrier disruption in primary human coronary artery endothelial cells.
CB 1 receptors are widely expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, whereas CB 2 receptors are primarily restricted to the cells of the peripheral nervous system, microglia, and dorsal horn neurons.
ECs are retrograde messengers with agonistic activity on presynaptic CB 1 receptors, slowing neurotransmission. A good example of this effect is the suppression of nociceptive transmission in the periphery at the level of the posterior horn of the spinal cord. The first indication of the role of the ECS in diabetic neuropathy came from a murine diabetes model.
The researchers believe that the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD could treat this inflammation and therefore improve the body's metabolism.
ISA Scientific, an Israeli company, recently signed a worldwide collaboration and licensing deal to establish therapies containing CBD. Are there side effects? There are no major side effects of CBD, according to Rosenfield, which will not affect patients with diabetes doing everyday activities such as work, driving or exercise.
While CBD can be obtained from marijuana, it is also abundant in hemp, a plant with no psychoactive properties and no potential for abuse. Your comments may be moderated. Please report any spam, illegal, offensive or libellous posts.
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But product sales and interest in CBD are hitting new heights. CBD is also turning up in everything from beauty products like lip balm and mascara to sodas, alcohol, and infused waters. In fact, one of the only studies to ever look directly at the effects of cannabidiol on blood sugar and insulin levels in people with diabetes found no benefits at all.
They took one of the compounds, or a combination of the two, daily for 13 weeks. CBD did seem to cause small changes in resistin, a protein that boosts inflammation and may be involved in insulin resistance; and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide hormone that stimulates insulin release. Related Considering Pot for Pain? The research had been supported by the UK drug company GW Pharmaceuticals, which went on to develop Epidiolex for seizure disorders.
So what about all the research cited online suggesting blood sugar benefits? Some mis-state the results of the UK study. All link readers to small studies in animals, with results that have not been tested or not been replicated in people. Between and , the US Food and Drug Administration sent warning letters to companies that marketed CBD products, over claims and testimonials that oils and other products could treat diabetes and other conditions—including cancer.
But they are turning up more and more frequently on other websites. Gottlieb said in a statement.
Using CBD Oil for Diabetes – Everything You Need to Know
It can be managed, with CBD oil and conventional treatments and with https:// saudemed.xyz Diabetes affects millions of people, and this number is growing every day. says that regular use of cannabis lowers the fasting insulin level by Although this is not a guaranteed cure for diabetes, CBD oil can relieve. The impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance CBD and THC-V on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.