Learn how the THC:CBD ratio in cannabis influences a specific strain's effects, and find out how that ratio is connected to the strain's genetics. Nonetheless, the THC:CBD ratio is a huge factor in how a strain will affect you. . University and a B.S. in genetics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. How much THC or CBD does your favorite cannabis product contain? Learn different ways Part one. How Genetics Influence THC to CBD Ratios · Part two.
THC:CBD Ratios Influence Strain Genetics | Leafly How
Variety names are typically chosen by their growers , and often reflect properties of the plant such as taste, color, smell, or the origin of the variety. These varieties have been cultivated to contain a high percentage of cannabinoids.
Several varieties of Cannabis , known as hemp , have a very low cannabinoid content, and are instead grown for their fiber and seed. The two species of the Cannabis genus that are most commonly grown are Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa. However, because Cannabis ruderalis flowers independently of the photoperiod and according to age, it has been used to breed autoflowering strains.
Pure sativas are relatively tall reaching as high as 4. Pure indica varieties are shorter and bushier, have wider leaflets. They are often favored by indoor growers for their size. Sativas bloom later than indicas , often taking a month or two longer to mature. The subjective effects of sativas and indicas are said to differ, but the ratio of tetrahydrocannabinol THC to cannabidiol CBD in most named drug varieties of both types is similar averaging about There is an increasing discussion whether the existing paradigm of the difference between species adequately represents the variability found within the genus Cannabis.
There has also been a recent movement  to characterize strains based on their reported subjective effects. For example, WoahStork has used machine learning algorithms to classify strains into six Distinct Activity groups. In addition to pure indica , sativa , and ruderalis varieties, hybrid varieties with varying ratios of these three types are common.
These hybrid varieties exhibit traits from both parental types. There are also commercial crossbred hybrids which contain a mix of both ruderalis, indica or sativa genes, and are usually autoflowering varieties.
These varieties are bred mostly for the medicinal cannabis market, since they are not very appreciated by recreational cannabis users because ruderalis varieties are lower in THC and impart a slightly unpleasant taste.
Autoflowering cannabis varieties have the advantage of being discreet due to their small stature. They also require shorter growing periods, as well as having the additional advantage that they do not rely on a change in the photoperiod to determine when to flower. Breeding requires pollinating a female cannabis plant with male pollen.
Although this occurs spontaneously and ubiquitously in nature, the intentional creation of new varieties typically involves selective breeding in a controlled environment. When cannabis is cultivated for its psychoactive or medicinal properties, male plants will often be separated from females. This prevents the fertilization of the female plants, either to facilitate sinsemilla flowering or to provide more control over which male is chosen.
Pollen produced by the male is caught and stored until it is needed. When a male plant of one strain pollinates a female of another strain, the seeds will be F1 hybrids of the male and female. These offspring will not be identical to their parents. Instead, they will have characteristics of both parents.
Repeated breeding results in certain characteristics appearing with greater regularity. It is impossible for a hermaphrodite to create any male only plants. A hermaphrodite may create female only seeds and hermaphrodite seeds. Also the female only seeds may carry the hermaphrodite trait.
A common technique to stabilize a cannabis variety is called "cubing". The same traits are sought in the new inbred offspring, which are then again bred with the original parent plant. Pot smokers in the UK never looked back and skunk is now by far the most prevalent type of cannabis sold illegally here.
By , Potter could find hardly any traces of CBD at all in a batch of seized cannabis samples given to him for analysis by the Home Office. The exact effect this change has had on the mental health of cannabis users is hard to say — the link between cannabis and schizophrenia remains complex and controversial. Researchers have struggled to prove whether cannabis causes psychosis, or whether people predisposed to psychosis are just more likely to smoke cannabis. The best evidence currently suggests that in people who are genetically at risk of schizophrenia , regular cannabis use doubles their risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms.
But no long-term studies of people with schizophrenia have chemically analysed the type of cannabis the subjects were smoking. Potter has seen the extreme effects of both substance abuse and schizophrenia in his role as a magistrate for his local court.
He recounts a recent case where a seemingly pleasant teenager, suffering from acute and sudden psychotic illness, had turned to alcohol and become violent. The defendant, now diagnosed and medicated, will still be found guilty despite his temporary insanity.
The need for new antipsychotic drugs is pressing. Existing medication does little to treat the other disabling symptoms of the disease — chronic inflammation, low mood, anxiety, and cognitive impairment — and often has worrying side-effects including weight gain, involuntary movements and drowsiness.
Results from double-blind, phase II clinical trials for CBD as a schizophrenia treatment will report next year. For now hopes rest on a small trial involving 39 patients with schizophrenia, 19 of whom were given the antipsychotic drug amisulpride, the rest CBD. At the end of the four-week trial, both groups showed significant improvement in their symptoms, but the CBD cohort reported far fewer side effects.
Potter and his team remain cautious, as it is not yet fully understood how CBD actually works — it is simplistic to say CBD just does the opposite of the psychosis-inducing THC. One theory is that CBD boosts the activity of other cannabinoids produced naturally by the brain.
Potter is passionate about cannabis, but he is not a politician. CBD is the second most well-known cannabinoid found in cannabis, and like most of the other phytocannabinoids, it is non-psychotropic. These are the two most abundant and well-studied cannabinoids in marijuana, and both have been found in numerous published studies to have pain-relieving properties in humans. While they may be the most abundant, THC and CBD are certainly not the only compounds found in cannabis that are known to exert positive effects on human health.
In every cannabis plant, there is a unique mixture of hundreds of plant compounds, comprised of phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids.
Research suggests that these compounds too have an influence on our neurochemistry, and together they may work synergistically, producing better improvements in pain relief than anyone would produce on its own.
This research supports the idea that it is best to use the whole cannabis plant, with CBD, THC, and the natural medley of additional compounds. This harmony between the various plant chemicals found in marijuana is colloquially referred to as the entourage effect. The most well-studied compounds found in the marijuana plant that support the idea of the entourage effect are THC and CBD, which have been found to work differently together than when separate.
Using these two compounds in concert has been shown to help mitigate side effects and enhance efficacy, with CBD plus THC showing more benefit for some conditions than THC alone. It has also been found to extend the half-life of THC, which may help to extend the pain-relieving benefits. This has allowed the use of higher doses of THC in clinical trials for the treatment of pain caused by multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis.
When used in concert, a greater efficacy in treating these types of pain have been observed. Every strain of bud that you can purchase at a dispensary will be labeled with its THC and CBD content, which can be helpful when choosing which strain to choose for pain relief.
CBD has been found to exhibit enhancements in treating pain both when used on its own and when used in combination with THC. When used alone, CBD is largely best for inflammatory pain, such as that caused by arthritis or injuries. In one animal study on arthritis pain, it was found that the topical application of CBD led to a reduction in inflammation and pain. Another animal study found that CBD helps to reduce neuropathic pain through the suppression of chronic inflammation. CBD does not directly bind to the receptors found in the endocannabinoid system but rather works to modulate the effects of the endocannabinoids the cannabinoids found naturally in our bodies as well as working as a CB1 receptor antagonist.
The main mechanism by which CBD is thought to help mediate pain is by reducing inflammation , largely by blocking inflammatory mediators. It is also believed to potentiate glycine receptors, which help to regulate pain at the spinal level. This suppresses both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. THC is used clinically for the treatment of pain and studies find it helps relieve central and neuropathic pain.
It is also used to help reduce pain in cancer, AIDS, and fibromyalgia patients, for which resistance to other pain treatments have been found. The mode of action for THC is as a partial CB1 receptor agonist, which means that it will bind to these receptors but not fully which leads to the variability in effects documented when THC is present with other CB1 agonists, antagonists or both. It has been found to impact the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic systems — an action which may contribute to its pain-relieving benefits.
Additionally, THC has been found to act as an anti-inflammatory agent. While human studies have found benefits from the use of THC, CBD, and whole-plant marijuana in relieving pain, much of the evidence for this use comes from user reports and surveys. When searching for the best cannabis strains for pain relief, you will first want to consider how much THC and CBD is found in the strain.
This is because CBD can help to mediate the side effects of THC while also providing additional anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. One example would be if you are experiencing inflammation, yet you are wanting to go about your day normally, without the psychotropic effects of THC. Other times you may be in enough pain that you would like something that takes your mind off the pain while also offering pain relief.
In one survey , participants reported that indicas helped more than sativas when it came to headaches, joint pain, neuropathy, and spasticity. Users also reported indicas to be more helpful when it comes to sleep and sedation. Lastly, there are countless user reports on specific strains of weed that have been found to be powerful for relieving pain.
While some of these strains are high CBD, indica strains, some strains of weed used for pain do not fall into this category. It may be that the other cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids have come together in a harmonious balance that leads to strong pain-relieving properties.
There are limited studies examining the effect of CBD alone on pain in humans. When it comes to CBD only studies, the majority are preclinical or animal studies.
That said, the research conducted thus far, along with countless user reports, suggests that CBD itself may be able to help relieve pain. Activation of cannabinoid receptors has been linked to the inhibition of pain. The exact mechanisms of action are still being researched, however, CBD has been found to increase the levels of endocannabinoids in the body, specifically anandamide. It is plausible that this increase in endogenous endocannabinoids could have an impact on pain.
Another study suggests that CBD in rats induced suppression of chronic inflammation and neuropathic pain through potentiating glycine receptors. Here we will examine the limited scientific evidence, along with theories relating to the use of CBD for pain.
A cannabis chemical variety (chemovar) has genetic properties that will predetermine Terpenes in cannabis not only influence the flavor and taste but also The THC to CBD ratio is a key player in any cannabis experience. There are over 80 different cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. medicinal effects of cannabis (plant genetics, cannabinoid content, terpene profiles, etc.) Below is a guideline on how each compound may affect you. document the dosage, the cannabinoid percentages (THC, CBD), the strain name, and. Cannabis breeders have long been crossing plants to develop distinctive Holmes, a geneticist and founder of a cannabis genetics company Phylos Bioscience. “The biggest influence [in the entourage effect] is CBD,” says ratios and providing detailed terpene profiles in certain strains and products.