One does not need to smoke marijuana or get high to benefit from medical Preclinical studies have shown that full-spectrum CBD-rich cannabis oil (with a. Let drops absorb (rather than swallowing) for quicker effect. Includes organic coconut oil to aid absorption. Available in CBD-to-THC ratios of , , , , . CannabisNL is the only legal provider in Newfoundland and Labrador offering a full complement of cannabis flower, plants, seeds and oils that can be.
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Topical CBD treatments are just beginning to be studied , but many users are claiming their efficacy for pain and inflammation relief some doctors are backing it, too! As CBD is widely known as a natural anti-inflammatory, it makes sense that this kind of product could be incorporated into a massage.
We just haven't seen that pop up in spas just yet - until now. When I got word that the St. And as the selfless person I am, I decided to take one for the team and see if this new wellness treatment was as dreamy and effective as it sounded. Regis uses is CO2-extracted, is "derived from hemp and has no THC," and comes from Colorado - this particular extraction process as she told me allows for more concentration. My body is ready. As a particularly active person, I don't just use massage as a form of self-care - it's part of my athletic recovery and health maintenance.
And though each time I get a massage I feel like I'm getting a luxurious treat, this particular session with CBD took it to the next level. I felt an intense, soothing warmth and a warm-and-fuzzy feeling all over my body. It was so deeply physically relaxing that I almost felt as if I was floating and melting into the massage table at the same time. This is literally heaven on earth, people. I'm already planning on going back. But the fact that a huge, international brand like the St.
The NT levels in animal brain and antinociceptive activity of NT were analyzed. The result on brain transport showed that nanoparticles could exert enhanced delivery of NT into the brain significantly after i. The results of antinociceptive activity showed that NT-P-NP increased immobility in the open-field test, both phases of formalin test were significantly inhibited by the NT-P-NP and NT-P-NP significantly inhibited the reaction time to thermal stimuli at 60 and 90 min.
These data suggest that NT-loaded nanoparticles coated with polysorbate could generate a significant improvement of drug levels in the brain.
Intranasal administration of Neurotoxin-1 entrapped in nanoparticles coated with polysorbate is an attractive alternative to intravenous administration. Discontinuation due to adverse events in randomized trials of orlistat, sibutramine and rimonabant: Enhanced brain targeting of temozolomide in polysorbate coated polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles.
Aug Mol Pharmacol. The past decades have seen an exponential rise in our understanding of the endocannabinoid system, comprised of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, endogenous cannabinoids endocannabinoids , and the enzymes that synthesize and degrade endocannabinoids. The primary focus of this review is the CB2 receptor. CB2 receptors have been the subject of considerable attention, primarily due to their promising therapeutic potential towards treating various pathologies while avoiding the adverse psychotropic effects, which can accompany CB1 receptor-based therapies.
With the appreciation that CB2 selective ligands show marked functional selectivity, there is a renewed opportunity to explore this promising area of research both from a mechanistic as well as therapeutic perspective. In this review we will summarize our present knowledge of CB2 receptor signaling, localization and regulation. We will discuss the availability of genetic tools and their limitations to study CB2 receptors and also provide an update on preclinical data using CB2 agonists in pain models.
Finally, we suggest possible reasons for the failure of CB2 ligands in clinical pain trials and offer possible ways to move the field forward in a way that can help reconcile the inconsistencies between preclinical and clinical data. Recent advances in drug delivery. Solid lipid-based nanoparticles SLBNs were developed as potential alternatives to other conventional drug delivery systems such as polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, and emulsions.
In general, SLBNs are divided into two types: SLBNs can be prepared by several methods including high pressure homogenization, solvent emulsification or diffusion -evaporation, and microemulsion technologies.
Then, SLBNs can be characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface charge, morphology, and crystallinity. SLBNs are well-tolerated and efficient carrier systems for parenteral, oral, inhalational, ocular, and dermal applications.
This review provides an overview of the preparation and characterization technologies for SLBNs and focuses on recent advances in drug delivery using SLBNs. An emotional buffer in the modulation of memory function. Extensive evidence indicates that endocannabinoids modulate cognitive processes in animal models and human subjects. However, the results of endocannabinoid system manipulations on cognition have been contradictory.
As for anxiety behavior, a duality has indeed emerged with regard to cannabinoid effects on memory for emotional experiences. Here we summarize findings describing cannabinoid effects on memory acquisition, consolidation, retrieval and extinction. Additionally, we review findings showing how the endocannabinoid system modulates memory function differentially, depending on the level of stress and arousal associated with the experimental context.
Based on the evidence reviewed here, we propose that the endocannabinoid system is an emotional buffer that moderates the effects of environmental context and stress on cognitive processes. P-glycoprotein Inhibition for Optimal Drug Delivery. P-glycoprotein P-gp , an efflux membrane transporter, is widely distributed throughout the body and is responsible for limiting cellular uptake and the distribution of xenobiotics and toxic substances.
Hundreds of structurally diverse therapeutic agents are substrates to it and it impedes the absorption, permeability, and retention of the drugs, extruding them out of the cells.
It is overexpressed in cancer cells and accountable for obstructing cell internalization of chemotherapeutic agents and for developing transporter mediated resistance by cancer cells during anti-tumor treatments. As it jeopardizes the success of drug delivery and cancer targeting, strategies are being developed to overcome P-gp mediated drug transport.
This concise review represents a brief discussion on P-gp mediated drug transport and how it hinders the success of various therapies. Its main focus is on various strategies used to tackle this curb in the field of drug delivery and targeting. The endocannabinoid system as a possible target to treat both the cognitive and emotional features of post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. Post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD is a psychiatric disorder of significant prevalence and morbidity, whose pathogenesis relies on paradoxical changes of emotional memory processing.
An ideal treatment would be a drug able to block the pathological over-consolidation and continuous retrieval of the traumatic event, while enhancing its extinction and reducing the anxiety symptoms. While the latter benefit from antidepressant medications, no drug is available to control the cognitive symptomatology. Endocannabinoids regulate affective states and participate in memory consolidation, retrieval, and extinction.
Clinical findings showing a relationship between Cannabis use and PTSD, as well as changes in endocannabinoid activity in PTSD patients, further suggest the existence of a link between endocannabinoids and maladaptive brain changes after trauma exposure.
Along these lines, we suggest that endocannabinoid degradation inhibitors may be an ideal therapeutic approach to simultaneously treat the emotional and cognitive features of PTSD, avoiding the unwanted psychotropic effects of compounds directly binding cannabinoid receptors.
The Cubic Phases of Lipids. This chapter describes the cubic phases of lipids. Phases with cubic symmetry have been observed in lipid-water systems since the early days of lipid polymorphism, at a time when it seemed all too natural to presume without closer inspection that phases with such high symmetry should consist of spherical micelles of type I or 11, orderly packed in a cubic lattice. Another important aspect of the cubic phases of lipid-containing systems is their possible biological relevance.
In a more general way, the biological significance of lipid polymorphism is a problem often evoked in the past. On account of their remarkable topological properties, the bicontinuous cubic phases are far better candidates for biological speculations than the lamellar and the hexagonal phases.
The cubic phases of lipids. Dec Stud Surf Sci Catal. This chapter discusses the cubic phases of lipids. Phases with cubic symmetry is observed in lipid-water systems because the early days of lipid polymorphism, at a time when it seemed all too natural to presume without closer inspection that phases with such high symmetry should consist of spherical micelles of type I or II, orderly packed in a cubic lattice. Crystallographic analyses revealed that cubic symmetry is the attribute of not one lipid phase but of a large family of phases.
Moreover, the structure of these phases that took quite a few years to determine turned out to be unexpectedly complex and multifarious.
The chapter discusses the structural and physical properties of the cubic phases and of other lipid phases of lower symmetry in a search for general criteria applicable to all lipids. Evaluation of monooleine aqueous dispersions as tools for topical administration of curcumin: Characterization, in vitro and ex-vivo studies.
Jul J Pharmaceut Sci. Curcumin CUR is a well-known natural compound showing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor abilities but characterized by poor bioavailability and chemical instability, which drastically reduce its application in the treatment of chronic diseases such as osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study is the design and evaluation of monooleine aqueous dispersion MAD as novel carriers for the topical administration of CUR.
These vehicles were characterized, and their influence on in vitro percutaneous absorption of CUR was also evaluated. Furthermore, an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was used to determine their antioxidant activity, and a Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the formulations on inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 expressions.
Modulating the endocannabinoid system in human health and disease - Successes and failures. No claim to original US government works. Although it is well established that cannabinoid drugs can influence cognitive performance, the findings -describing both enhancing and impairing effects- have been ambiguous. Here, we investigated the effects of posttraining systemic administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN55, 0.
In male Sprague-Dawley rats that were not previously habituated to the experimental context, WIN55, administered immediately after a 3-min training trial biphasically impaired retention performance at a 1-hr interval.
In contrast, WIN55, enhanced 1-hr retention of rats that had received extensive prior habituation to the experimental context.
Interestingly, immediate posttraining administration of WIN55, to non-habituated rats, in doses that impaired 1-hr retention, enhanced object recognition performance at a hr interval. Posttraining WIN55, administration to habituated rats did not significantly affect hr retention. In light of intimate interactions between cannabinoids and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we further investigated whether cannabinoid administration might differently influence training-induced glucocorticoid activity in rats in these two habituation conditions.
WIN55, administered after object recognition training elevated plasma corticosterone levels in non-habituated rats whereas it decreased corticosterone levels in habituated rats. Most importantly, following pretreatment with the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, WIN55, effects on 1- and hr retention of non-habituated rats became similar to those seen in the low-aroused habituated animals, indicating that cannabinoid-induced regulation of adrenocortical activity contributes to the environmentally sensitive effects of systemically administered cannabinoids on short- and long-term retention of object recognition memory.
Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 22 January ; doi: Influence of the type of surfactant on the analgesic effects induced by the peptide dalargin after its delivery across the blood-brain barrier using surfactant-coated nanoparticles. The ability of 12 different surfactants, coated onto the surface of nanoparticles, to facilitate the delivery of a nanoparticle-bound model drug, dalargin, was investigated.
The leu-enkephalin analogue hexapeptide dalargin was bound to polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles by sorption for 3 h. Different surfactants were then coated over these nanoparticles and were injected intravenously into mice.
Nociceptive analgesia was then measured by the tail-flick text 15, 30, 45 and 90 min after injection. Only nanoparticles that had been coated with polysorbate 20, 40, 60 and 80 yielded a significant effect.
The highest effect was observed with polysorbate Targeting the endocannabinoid system with cannabinoid receptor agonists: Pharmacological strategies and therapeutic possibilities.
Dec Phil Trans Biol Sci. Human tissues express cannabinoid CB 1 and CB 2 receptors that can be activated by endogenously released 'endocannabinoids' or exogenously administered compounds in a manner that reduces the symptoms or opposes the underlying causes of several disorders in need of effective therapy.
This review mentions several possible additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists. These include other kinds of pain, epilepsy, anxiety, depression, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, cancer, drug dependence, glaucoma, autoimmune uveitis, osteoporosis, sepsis, and hepatic, renal, intestinal and cardiovascular disorders.
Oct J Neurosci. The brain endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in emotional processes. We have previously identified an important role for endocannabinoids in social play behavior, a highly rewarding form of social interaction in adolescent rats. Here, we tested the hypothesis that endocannabinoid modulation of social play behavior occurs in brain regions implicated in emotion and motivation.
Social play increased levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens NAc , but not in prefrontal cortex or hippocampus of 4- to 5-week-old male Wistar rats. Furthermore, social play increased phosphorylation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the amygdala. Systemic administration of the anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor URB increased social play behavior, and augmented the associated elevation in anandamide levels in the amygdala, but not the NAc.
Last, SRA did not affect social play after infusion into the core and shell subregions of the NAc, while it reduced social play when infused into the BLA.
These data show that increased anandamide signaling in the amygdala and NAc augments social play, and identify the BLA as a prominent site of action for endocannabinoids to modulate the rewarding properties of social interactions in adolescent rats. Dynamic light scattering DLS techniques for studying sizes and shapes of nanoparticles in liquids are reviewed. In photon correlation spectroscopy PCS , the time fluctuations in the intensity of light scattered by the particle dispersion are monitored.
For dilute dispersions of spherical nanoparticles, the decay rate of the time autocorrelation function of these intensity fluctuations is used to directly measure the particle translational diffusion coefficient, which is in turn related to the particle hydrodynamic radius. For a spherical particle, the hydrodynamic radius is essentially the same as the geometric particle radius including any possible solvation layers. PCS is one of the most commonly used methods for measuring radii of submicron size particles in liquid dispersions.
Depolarized Fabry-Perot interferometry FPI is a less common dynamic light scattering technique that is applicable to optically anisotropic nanoparticles. In FPI the frequency broadening of laser light scattered by the particles is analyzed. This broadening is proportional to the particle rotational diffusion coefficient, which is in turn related to the particle dimensions.
The translational diffusion coefficient measured by PCS and the rotational diffusion coefficient measured by depolarized FPI may be combined to obtain the dimensions of non-spherical particles.
DLS studies of liquid dispersions of nanometer-sized oligonucleotides in a water-based buffer are used as examples. Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of their antitumoral efficacy. Cannabinoids show promise for the treatment of various medical conditions such as emesis, anorexia, pain, cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and glaucoma. However, their high lipohilicity and instability complicate their handling and dosing, and restrict their use as pharmaceuticals.
Cannabidiol CBD dissolved in the polymeric matrix of the microspheres was slowly released in vitro within 10 days. In vitro cell viability studies demonstrated the antitumoral activity of CBD released from microparticles.
The results suggest that PCL microparticles could be an alternative delivery system for long-term cannabinoid administration, showing potential therapeutic advantages over free drug. A procedure for elemental composition determination of water-borne river particles Po River on both size-fractionated and unfractionated submicron particles 0. Sample fractionation was performed using sedimentation field-flow fractionation SdFFF. The distribution of relative mass vs.
Fractions were collected over a narrow size range for scanning electron microscopy. With this combination of techniques the mass, elemental composition, and shape distributions can be obtained across the size spectrum of the sample. The procedure was validated using a reference clay sample. The high levels of Cu, Pb, Cr and Cd found associated with the colloidal particles underlines the significance of the environmental role played by the suspended matter in rivers in both highly industrialised and intensively cultivated areas.
Altered skin permeation of a highly lipophilic molecule: The effect of decylmethylsulfoxide decylMSO and oleic acid on the skin permeation of the highly lipophilic compound, tetrahydrocannabinol THC , was investigated. For comparison, similar compositions containing the hydrophilic drug 5-fluorouracyl 5FU were also tested. Twenty-four-hour experiments were performed with diluted solutions of the drugs in Valia-Chien diffusion cells through hairless mouse skin.
The results were treated using the Transderm computer program. The results show that the permeability coefficient of THC was: A different behavior was observed when similar systems containing the hydrophilic 5FU were tested. The permeability coefficient of 5FU was: These results emphasize that the selective effect of an enhancer is the result of a tridimensional interaction between the drug, the skin, and the enhancer, in a specific environment.
State of the art, new preparation methods and challenges in drug delivery. Nanoparticles are rapidly developing as drug carriers because of their size-dependent properties. Lipid nanoparticles LNPs are widely employed in drug delivery because of the biocompatibility of the lipid matrix. This review gives an overview of LNPs, including their physico-chemical properties and pharmacological uses. Moreover, it highlights the most important innovations in the preparation techniques of LNPs, aimed to encapsulate different molecules within the lipid matrix.
Finally, it gives a short perspective on the challenges of drug delivery, which are a potential field of application for LNPs: LNPs are a safe and versatile vehicles for drug and active delivery, suitable for different administration routes. New technologies have been developed for LNP preparation and studies are currently underway in order to obtain the encapsulation of different drugs and to deliver the active molecule to the site of action. Safety assessment of nanomaterials: Nanotechnologies offer exciting opportunities for targeted drug delivery which is anticipated to increase the efficacy of the drug and reduce potential side-effects, through the reduction of the dose of the drug in bystander tissues and an increase of the drug at the desired target site.
Nevertheless, understanding whether the nano-scale carriers themselves may exert adverse effects is of great importance. The small size may enable nanoparticles to negotiate various biological barriers in the body which could, in turn, give rise to unexpected toxicities.
On the other hand, the potential of nanoparticles to cross barriers can also be exploited for drug delivery. Determining the fate of nanoparticles following their therapeutic or diagnostic application is critical: The bio-corona of proteins or lipids on the surface of nanoparticles is a key parameter for the understanding of biological interactions of nanoparticles.
In the present review, we discuss some of the major challenges related to safety of nanomedicines. Nanoparticulate lipid dispersions for bromocriptine delivery: Characterization and in vivo study.
The physico-chemical properties and in vivo efficacies of two nanoparticulate systems delivering the antiparkinsonian drug bromocriptine BC were compared in the present study. Both free BC and BC-NLC reduced the immobility time in the bar test and enhanced the number of steps in the drag test, although the effects of encapsulated BC were longer lasting 5h. Conversely, BC-MAD was ineffective in the bar test and improved stepping activity in the drag test to a much lower degree than those achieved with the other preparations.
Polybutylcyanoacrylate PBCA nanoparticles coated with polysorbate have been extensively proposed for delivering drugs into the animal brain and have shown great potential for therapeutic applications. In this study, we made an attempt to deliver the chemotherapeutic drug, temozolomide, into the brain by using PBCA nanoparticles. The physicochemical characteristics, in vitro release, and brain targeting ability of the drug-loaded nanoparticles were investigated.
This study indicates that polysorbate coated PBCA nanoparticles could be a feasible carrier for temozolomide delivery to the brain. It is anticipated that the developed formulation may improve on targeted therapy for malignant brain tumors in the future. Novel approach towards malaria treatment. In the present work, curcuminoids-loaded lipid nanoparticles for parenteral administration were successfully prepared by a nanoemulsion technique employing high-speed homogenizer and ultrasonic probe.
For the production of nanoparticles, trimyristin, tristerin and glyceryl monostearate were selected as solid lipids and medium chain triglyceride MCT as liquid lipid. Scanning electron microscopy SEM revealed the spherical nature of the particles with sizes ranging between and nm measured by photon correlation spectroscopy PCS.
DSC analyses revealed that increasing imperfections within the lipid matrix allowed for increasing encapsulation parameters. Nanoparticles were further sterilized by filtration process which was found to be superior over autoclaving in preventing thermal degradation of thermo-sensitive curcuminoids. The in vivo pharmacodynamic activity revealed 2-fold increase in antimalarial activity of curcuminoids entrapped in lipid nanoparticles when compared to free curcuminoids at the tested dosage level.
Revisiting the complex influences of cannabinoids on motor functions unravels pharmacodynamic differences between cannabinoid agonists. While numerous cannabinoid ligands were historically characterized using the tetrad test hypomobility, catalepsy, hypothermia, analgesia , only few studies have extensively compared HU and CP 55, which are nowadays classically used as reference agonists.
Therefore, we herein re-examined the acute and the sustained changes in motor activities mediated by these two agonists in adult rats. As expected for cannabinoid agonists, exposure to either HU or CP 55, induced a marked reduction in spontaneous locomotion. This reduction observed as early as 15 min after injection was correlated with the typical rearing and cataleptic responses, and was reversed by co-administration of the CB 1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR A.
Nevertheless, HU , but not CP 55,, was found to induce persistent responses, lasting for at least 24h. Beside pharmacokinetic differences, these data therefore denote distinct pharmacodynamic profiles for HU and CP 55, Sep Pharmaceut Res. Central nervous system CNS diseases represent the largest and fastest-growing area of unmet medical need. Nanotechnology plays a unique instrumental role in the revolutionary development of brain-specific drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis.
With the aid of nanoparticles of high specificity and multifunctionality, such as dendrimers and quantum dots, therapeutics, imaging agents, and diagnostic molecules can be delivered to the brain across the blood-brain barrier BBB , enabling considerable progress in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of CNS diseases.
Nanoparticles used in the CNS for drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are reviewed, as well as their administration routes, toxicity, and routes to cross the BBB. Future directions and major challenges are outlined. Developmental consequences of perinatal cannabis exposure: Behavioral and neuroendocrine effects in adult rodents.
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among pregnant women. Since the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in brain development, maternal exposure to cannabis derivatives might result in long-lasting neurobehavioral abnormalities in the exposed offspring.
It is difficult to detect these effects, and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms, in clinical cohorts, because of their intrinsic methodological and interpretative issues. Maternal exposure to even low doses of cannabinoid compounds results in atypical locomotor activity, cognitive impairments, altered emotional behavior, and enhanced sensitivity to drugs of abuse in the adult rodent offspring.
Some of the observed behavioral abnormalities might be related to alterations in stress hormone levels induced by maternal cannabis exposure. There is increasing evidence from animal studies showing that cannabinoid drugs are neuroteratogens which induce enduring neurobehavioral abnormalities in the exposed offspring.
Several preclinical findings reviewed in this paper are in line with clinical studies reporting hyperactivity, cognitive impairments and altered emotionality in humans exposed in utero to cannabis. Conversely, genetic, environmental and social factors could also influence the neurobiological effects of early cannabis exposure in humans. From Concepts to Clinic. In recent years, various nanotechnology platforms in the area of medical biology, including both diagnostics and therapy, have gained remarkable attention.
Moreover, research and development of engineered multifunctional nanoparticles as pharmaceutical drug carriers have spurred exponential growth in applications to medicine in the last decade.
Design principles of these nanoparticles, including nanoemulsions, dendrimers, nano-gold, liposomes, drug-carrier conjugates, antibody-drug complexes, and magnetic nanoparticles, are primarily based on unique assemblies of synthetic, natural, or biological components, including but not limited to synthetic polymers, metal ions, oils, and lipids as their building blocks.
However, the potential success of these particles in the clinic relies on consideration of important parameters such as nanoparticle fabrication strategies, their physical properties, drug loading efficiencies, drug release potential, and, most importantly, minimum toxicity of the carrier itself.
In this review, we will primarily focus on the recent advances and updates on lipid-based nanoparticles for their projected applications in drug delivery. We begin with a review of current activities in the field of liposomes the so-called honorary nanoparticles , and challenging issues of targeting and triggering will be discussed in detail.
Finally, an overview of an emerging novel class of particles based on lipid components other than phospholipids , solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers will be presented.
We conclude with a few examples of clinically successful formulations of currently available lipid-based nanoparticles.
How, Why and What for? Over the recent decades the interest in intranasal delivery as a non-invasive route for drugs is increased. Since the nasal mucosa offers numerous benefits as a target tissue for drug delivery, a wide variety of therapeutic compounds may be administered intranasally for topic, systemic and central nervous system action.
We have, herein, outlined the relevant aspects of nasal anatomy, physiology and histology, and the biological, physicochemical and pharmaceutical factors that must be considered during the process of discovery and development of nasal drugs as well as in their incorporation into appropriate nasal pharmaceutical formulations.
Intranasal delivery to the central nervous system: J Pharm Sci Nov J Pharmaceut Sci. The blood-brain barrier BBB limits the distribution of systemically administered therapeutics to the central nervous system CNS , posing a significant challenge to drug development efforts to treat neurological and psychiatric diseases and disorders. Intranasal delivery is a noninvasive and convenient method that rapidly targets therapeutics to the CNS, bypassing the BBB and minimizing systemic exposure.
This review focuses on the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying intranasal delivery to the CNS, with a discussion of pathways from the nasal cavity to the CNS involving the olfactory and trigeminal nerves, the vasculature, the cerebrospinal fluid, and the lymphatic system. In addition to the properties of the therapeutic, deposition of the drug formulation within the nasal passages and composition of the formulation can influence the pathway a therapeutic follows into the CNS after intranasal administration.
Experimental factors, such as head position, volume, and method of administration, and formulation parameters, such as pH, osmolarity, or inclusion of permeation enhancers or mucoadhesives, can influence formulation deposition within the nasal passages and pathways followed into the CNS.
Significant research will be required to develop and improve current intranasal treatments and careful consideration should be given to the factors discussed in this review. Jun Obes Rev. The objective of this article was to estimate the risk of discontinuation due to adverse events in trials of orlistat, sibutramine and rimonabant. All randomized placebo-controlled trials of months of duration on adults using licensed doses were included.
Trials were identified, subjected to inclusion and exclusion criteria and reviewed. Data on participants, interventions and discontinuation were extracted and trials rated for quality based on established criteria. A random effects model was used to estimate pooled risk ratios, risk differences and number needed to harm NNH. A total of 28 trials met the inclusion criteria 16 orlistat, 7 sibutramine and 5 rimonabant.
The risk ratios for discontinuation due to adverse events were significantly elevated for rimonabant 2. Corresponding information was unavailable for sibutramine. In conclusion, available weight loss drugs differ markedly regarding risk of discontinuation due to adverse events, as well as in underlying causes of these events.
Given the large number of patients eligible for treatment, the low NNH for rimonabant is a concern. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for bioanalytical application with rimonabant. A simple and feasible high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection was developed and validated for the quantification of rimonabant in human plasma.
The mobile phase was a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer and acetonitrile The UV detection was set at nm. The extraction recovery of rimonabant in plasma at three quality control QC samples was ranged from
I Just Got a CBD Oil Massage and Holy Sh*t, My Body
Apr 10, Hemp oil extracted from hemp seeds has become an important source of edible of BCL and hence the oral bioavailability (as illustrated in Scheme 1). .. Lipids -based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for improved oral. Oct 12, LEADING OFF: Kershaw vs Gio and the bullpen as NLCS begins. Clayton Kershaw starts for the Dodgers in Game 1 of the NL Championship Series against Tuscaloosa Co. authorities cracking down on CBD oil sales. By. Jul 18, Nova Scotia Liquor Corporation executives showed off one of their new cannabis retail stores in Halifax on Wednesday that will begin selling.